#1: Anxiety and Persuasion
I found this advertisement online about secondhand smoking and how it is dangerous to children. Research suggests that anxiety, whether chronic or acute may be related to persuadability. For instance, Nunnally and Bobren (1959) found that anxious people were more persuadable than non-anxious people. Specifically, anxious people, compared to the non anxious may be more likely to yield to a message. When trying to persuade anxious people, be sure to include specific recommendations for avoiding the harms.
#2: Age and Persuasion
This McDonald’s Happy Meal ad is targeted at children. It is known that a toy comes with each McDonald’s Happy Meal. When children see this advertisement on TV, they immediately want their parent to take them to McDonalds. Children are easy targets for persuasion, and research indicates that this is generally true: Children tend to be especially vulnerable to persuasive trickery because they lack the ability to understand the nature and intent of persuaders (McAlister & Cornwell, 2009).
#3: Self-Esteem and Persuasion
The ad features a black and white, svelte-yet-curvy, fair-haired and fair-skinned woman in a bright yellow bikini. Her hair is long and lush, her lips full, and her waist is tiny. Next to her is the simple question: Are you beach body ready? The question is almost immediately followed by the introduction of “the weight loss collection”. As if to suggest you probably are not beach body ready, and that clearly the step to remedy that involves losing weight.
People with low self-esteem may be more likely to yield to a message because they lack confidence in themselves and their opinions. If someone does not feel confident with their body, they may be more likely to buy this product because they think they will look like the model if she is using it.
The point of branding is to create a distinctive product image that is linked to favorable qualities. When you think of Red Bull, consumers think of descriptors like, hyper, speed, extreme, and dangerous in relation to the energy drink. Red Bull’s saying “Red Bull Gives You Wings” is targeting audience is anyone that plays sports because it is they sponsor “extreme” sports such as mountain biking and racing. Because of their branding, the drink “goes with” the sport (Gass & Seiter, p.63).
McCroskey and Teven (1999) suggest that goodwill is synonymous with perceived caring. That is, a source who seems to care about and take a genuine interest in the receiver is displaying goodwill.
This advertisement by BMW represents goodwill because it is displaying empathy. It is identifying with another persons feelings, especially with the image of the fake leg showing what can happen in a car accident that involves alcohol. The target audience is anyone that drives a car and wants them to be aware of the dangerous accidents that can take place, especially when a driver is intoxicated.
On occasion, corporations, institutions, and government agencies commit blunders that damage their credibility. William Benoit (1995) refers to this process as image restoration.
Volkswagen’s credibility took a hit when it admitted that 11 million of its diesel engine cars were fitted with software designed to defeat emissions tests. VW ran a series of ads apologizing to customers and promising to make things right.
The concept of brand loyalty offers a useful illustration of Psychological Consistency (Festinger, 1957; Heider, 1958; Osgoog & Tannenbaum, 1955). Advertisers want us to experience psychological discomfort if we change brands. By instilling brand loyalty, advertisers hope to discourage product switching. People want to be consistent, consistency was originally conceived of as a “drive-reduction” theory. More current thinking suggests that consistency is also socially motivated and is as much an attempt to manage face and project a favorable self-image and internal drive (Gass & Seiter, 2018 p. 66).
This slogan by Mercedes is designed to show brand loyalty on the part of the consumer and feelings of psychological consistency if consumers deceive their usual brands.
This advertisement could also appeal to self-monitoring, in particular high self monitors. High self monitors are easily persuaded by an image and want to fit in. People may think they will have a better image because they drive a Mercedes (Gass & Seiter, 2018 p. 114).
This persuasive ad campaign illustrates the Reasoned Action Approach (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). Take anti-smoking advertisements in the US, for instance, where campaigns often provide reasoned arguments or messages focusing on what other people think about smoking (social norms) or on individual attitudes toward smoking (personal attitudes). Health communication research has demonstrated that health messages that challenge people’s perception of social norms are effective in changing behavior and in building people’s confidence to stop smoking. The Reasoned Action Approach views intention as the best predictor of behavior. A person’s intention to perform a behavior is the best indicator, however the intentions do not always correspond with the behavior (Gass & Seiter, 2018 p. 60).
Rosie the Riveter
This poster qualifies as propaganda because it involves persuasion where Rosie is persuading other young American women to join the war effort. I think this poster uses glittering and band wagon propaganda as she became the symbol of women in the workforce during WWII. The image of a strong, confident, courageous woman shows this is a collective effort for everyone to join in. Rosie the Riveter was the star of a campaign aimed at recruiting female workers for defense industries during WWII. Many women would likely be hesitant about taking on a manual-labor position, but Rosie the Riveter helped to instill confidence with her flexed muscles, stern look, and simple statement.
I think this advertisement that shows the difference in Bud Light and Miller Light beers is persuasive. The target audience is anyone who drinks alcohol, specifically beer and may not realize the nutrition facts of beer. The use of logos, which is logic reasoning to show the calorie count and carb numbers is effective (Gass & Seiter, p.312). This advertisement really shows that Miller Lite can be better for your health because of the lower calories and carbs. If the advertisement did not have the numbers, I don’t think it would be as effective.