Chapter 14 Artifacts

Iconicity & “The Kiss”

The Story Behind the Famous Kiss | Naval History Magazine - August ...

One way that images persuade is by functioning as icons, which means that they stand for and resemble the things they represent. An image can sum up a concept, it does not matter whether they are accurate representations or not as long as people understand what they represent. The most important property of images is to summarize ideas and concepts. “If there is one property that most clearly shows pictures from language and other modes of communication that property is iconicity” (Messaris, 1997)

This photo was taken in 1945 of a sailor kissing a woman in a nurse outfit is very recognizable by Americans. The photo represents happiness and joy by the war being over and is an example of iconicity.

The photo has been recreated several times and is in many history books in the United States, representing freedom and happiness. There is also a statue in New York modeled after this photograph.


Picture Superiority Effect & Drunk Driving

Sunday is the Super Bowl of drunk driving, crash data show - Los ...

The picture superiority effect suggests pictures are more easily recognized and recalled than words (Hockley, 2008). Medina (2014) reports, for example that people remember only about 10 percent of what they hear three days before, compared to 65 percent recall when pictures are included. Images also cross languages and cultures more easily.

This is an image of a car accident that happened as a result of drunk driving after the 2015 Super Bowl in Los Angeles. This image really shows the dangers of drunk driving with the way the cars are completely destroyed. I think the audience is anyone that drives and it raises awareness to them to not drunk drive because you are risking not only your own life, but other peoples lives.

Often times, people use statistics of drunk driving but I think images do a better job and getting the message to the reader because they are able to physically see the damage that can happen as a result.


Shock Ads

This image, a shock ad from the Pedestrian Council of Australia ...

Images can be used in the form of advertising knows as shock ads. Shock ads or “shockvertising” push the boundaries of taste and propriety (Lazar, 2003; McCarthy, 2000). The overall goal is to sell or promote something by being edgy, some ads are vulgar, humorous or nauseating.

This is an example of a shock ad to raise awareness to people who are unaware when they are pedestrians with their headphones in and might get hit by a car. The blood coming from her ear symbolizes where the headphones are supposed to be. When I first saw this image, it scared me a little bit and made me realize how dangerous it can be when you are not aware of traffic going on around you because you are distracted. This ad gets the message across rather quickly as the image speaks for it self and only requires peripheral processing (chapter 2).

A study conducted by Dahl, Frankenberger, and Manchanda (2003) suggests that shock ads work as a method of persuasion. These researches observed that “shocking content in an advertisement significantly increases attention, benefits memory, and positively influences behavior.” However, shock ads have to be just shocking enough to provoke the public dialogue and publicity but if they are overly shocking, they may influence a rebellion by consumers.


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