May 2020 archive

Chapter 15 Artifacts

Color & Fast Food

Color Psychology in Food Marketing – AWG Sales Services

Color plays a big role in advertising as certain colors can evoke different emotions and behaviors. What I found interesting is how most fast food have the colors red and yellow in their logos on their signs. These colors are associated with what makes people hungry. The color red is associated with emotion and passion. Therefore, when someone sees red they may become “passionately hungry. “

The color red can be associated with a sense of urgency and eyes are sensitive to the color red and are able to notice it much faster than other colors. As Gobé (2019) explains, “Colors with long wavelengths are arousing (e.g., red is the most stimulating color that will attract the eye faster than any other) and colors with short wavelengths are soothing (e.g., blue, which actually lowers blood pressure, pulse, and respiration rates). For example, if you are driving on the freeway and see a sign for “In-N-Out” your eyes are able to notice it rather quickly because of the colors in the logo.


Embedded Images & Baskin Robbins

10+ Hidden Symbols In Famous Logos - Baskin-Robbins | Guff

Embedded images are buried or hidden within an advertisement. Researchers are unable to substantiate any claims about hidden images persuading people to want to buy what is being advertised (Gable, Wilkens, & Harris, 1987).

In the Basking Robbins logo, there is the number 31 in the B & R which I think is a clever way to advertise because Baskin Robbins has 31 flavors. This can also be seen as a subliminal influence which is a message that is processed without conscious awareness. Trappey (1996) concluded in his analysis “the results show now significant positive or negative effect… subliminal advertising does little to influence consumer behavior.” Personally, when I first looked at the Baskin Robbins logo I did not see the 31 embedded in the image until I looked more carefully, this would require someone to have high Central Processing (Chapter 2) to really look at the image closely and put in mental effort.


Musical Fit & Sunday Night Football

Sony lyrics persuade, they do so though the central route to persuasion, which the song lyrics are thought about and reflected by listeners (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Music can also persuade through the peripheral route to persuasion which occurs when listeners hear, but don’t actively attend to the music.The congruity of a song with a brand is known as musical fit and it affects consumers’ perceptions of a product or service (North, Sheridan, & Areni, 2016).

This is an example of the song played by Carrie Underwood on every Sunday night during football season and it is easily recognizable to many. Even at the very beginning of the song, I know exactly what it is and I associate it with football. The audience of this song is football fans and people that regularly watch Sunday Night football. Brand endorsements appear with mention of the Steelers and the name of one of the announcers. According to the textbook, brand endorsements appear regularly in song lyrics (Gloor, 2014). One study found that 30 percent of all songs, and 73 percent of rap songs included brand mentions ( Craig, Flynn, & Holody, 2017).


Chapter 14 Artifacts

Iconicity & “The Kiss”

The Story Behind the Famous Kiss | Naval History Magazine - August ...

One way that images persuade is by functioning as icons, which means that they stand for and resemble the things they represent. An image can sum up a concept, it does not matter whether they are accurate representations or not as long as people understand what they represent. The most important property of images is to summarize ideas and concepts. “If there is one property that most clearly shows pictures from language and other modes of communication that property is iconicity” (Messaris, 1997)

This photo was taken in 1945 of a sailor kissing a woman in a nurse outfit is very recognizable by Americans. The photo represents happiness and joy by the war being over and is an example of iconicity.

The photo has been recreated several times and is in many history books in the United States, representing freedom and happiness. There is also a statue in New York modeled after this photograph.


Picture Superiority Effect & Drunk Driving

Sunday is the Super Bowl of drunk driving, crash data show - Los ...

The picture superiority effect suggests pictures are more easily recognized and recalled than words (Hockley, 2008). Medina (2014) reports, for example that people remember only about 10 percent of what they hear three days before, compared to 65 percent recall when pictures are included. Images also cross languages and cultures more easily.

This is an image of a car accident that happened as a result of drunk driving after the 2015 Super Bowl in Los Angeles. This image really shows the dangers of drunk driving with the way the cars are completely destroyed. I think the audience is anyone that drives and it raises awareness to them to not drunk drive because you are risking not only your own life, but other peoples lives.

Often times, people use statistics of drunk driving but I think images do a better job and getting the message to the reader because they are able to physically see the damage that can happen as a result.


Shock Ads

This image, a shock ad from the Pedestrian Council of Australia ...

Images can be used in the form of advertising knows as shock ads. Shock ads or “shockvertising” push the boundaries of taste and propriety (Lazar, 2003; McCarthy, 2000). The overall goal is to sell or promote something by being edgy, some ads are vulgar, humorous or nauseating.

This is an example of a shock ad to raise awareness to people who are unaware when they are pedestrians with their headphones in and might get hit by a car. The blood coming from her ear symbolizes where the headphones are supposed to be. When I first saw this image, it scared me a little bit and made me realize how dangerous it can be when you are not aware of traffic going on around you because you are distracted. This ad gets the message across rather quickly as the image speaks for it self and only requires peripheral processing (chapter 2).

A study conducted by Dahl, Frankenberger, and Manchanda (2003) suggests that shock ads work as a method of persuasion. These researches observed that “shocking content in an advertisement significantly increases attention, benefits memory, and positively influences behavior.” However, shock ads have to be just shocking enough to provoke the public dialogue and publicity but if they are overly shocking, they may influence a rebellion by consumers.


Chapter 13 Artifacts

Pity, Guilt, & Shame Appeals

Persuaders try to evoke negative emotions in people. Pity, guilt, and shame are three emotions that a persuaders can use to their advantage. Becheur and Valette Florence (2014) found that a combination of guilt and shame was more effective that guilt alone.

This advertisement made me feel guilty, especially with the use of logos by saying “pint of beer costs 4.50 euros and 50 liters of fresh water is 1.50 euros.” The man in the advertisement looks frustrated, maybe he is being deprived of food and water. Therefore, I think this advertisement is targeted at people, such as Americans that have all these natural resources at their fingertips.

Sometimes, as Americans I think we take these resources for granted, such as food, water, and shelter when other people in the world do not have these things. I think the goal of this advertisement is to raise awareness for what is going on in other parts of the world, as well as trying to make the reader feel guilty.


Sex Appeals

The Sex Appeal of SKYY Vodka | Drugs Advertisements Debunk

I saw this advertisement of SKYY Vodka and noticed the branding technique of sexualizing advertisements, which can be seen in this SKYY Infusions Cherry advertisement.

SKYY Vodka targets its brand at an audience of young, successful people. In this advertisement, SKYY wants to show the elegance of drinking their vodka, along with a sex appeal of it. This ad shows risky behavior in a sexual way and portrays the pleasure of what comes when drinking their product. The two women are wearing bright red lipstick and have a full face of makeup on and only a portion of their face is being shown. The focus is on their lips around the cherry’s rather than their actual face.

According to the textbook, one analysis found that half of all print ads depict women as sex objects ( Stankiewicz & Rosselli, 2008). The use of more overt sexual appeals has increased (Malik, 2016) and increasingly younger audiences are being targeted. For example, I think this advertisement targets young men and women, age 21 and over, who can be easily influenced.



The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPM)

The Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) predicts how people will respond to a threat. According to the model, when a person encounters a fear-arousing message, the person can respond in one of three ways ( Maloney, Lapinksi, & Witte, 2011). First, the person might ignore the message altogether. Second, if the person believes they are at risk, they may use danger control, by focusing on constructive ways of preventing or reducing the threat. Third, the person may have a non-constructive response which is known as fear control. Fear control involves panic and message rejection.

In this message about COVID-19 the perceived threat and efficacy are high because it says “slow the spread, stay home if you can.” Because this message is advising people to stay home and not go outside, the audience may use danger control which is effective response to the message because it focuses on the solution and the audience will take the appropriate action.

Perceived efficacy has two parts. The first is response efficacy, which has to do with whether there are effective steps in avoiding harm. For example, an audience of people who want to avoid getting COVID-19 will take the precautions of staying home. Self-efficacy has do with whether the audience is able to take those steps. If both of these are present, danger control is more likely to occur.


Unethical Persuasion Artifact

Juul Unethical Advertisement

I think this advertisement by Juul is clearly appealing to a youth audience, age 16-20 years old which is unethical to make kids and teenagers think this product is safe to use.

Juul says their goal is to “save the lives of billions of smokers,” says Dr. Robert Jackler from Stanford University who studies tobacco advertising. However, looking at their marketing campaigns it does not look like the company’s behavior is aligned with that goal. Juul ads are usually portraying attractive, young models showing behavior, such as dancing and wearing teenager clothing styles.

Others models strike playful poses and smile in bright lipstick. The campaign also ran in a full-page spread in Vice magazine in 2015, a publication that has marketed itself as the “#1 youth media company.” This ad features a model with a long, high ponytail, styled like a teen pop star.

Juul even used names for their flavors, such as “Cool Mint,” “Creme Brûlée,” and “Cool Cucumber” to appeal to younger audiences.

I think the main motivation for deception Juul is using is lying to benefit others. Early on in Juuls campaign they did not advertise that this device was safer than cigarettes. Now, they have said that to attract more people even when the FDA announced that it was not true.